Dealing with livestock affected by the 2014 bushfires in South Australia: decision-making and recovery. Human behaviour with respect to animals is much more complex than simply the welfare of the animal. Protection motivation theory has originally been proposed to provide conceptual clarity to the understanding of fear appeals. Thus, new strategies and tactics which resonate broadly with people in at-risk areas and demographics need to be identified and implemented, to accelerate the transition from awareness into action [9, 12]. As a result, the concretization of a theory leads to its development into a system of interrelated theories that are united by the idealized object underlying them. 2001;25(1):76–94. One Health Initiative: One health initiative will unite human and veterinary medicine. 6, p. 24). Braun V, Clarke V. Successful Qualitative Research. For example, overwhelming emotions can cause a limited focus on rescuing family or animals, and subsequent unsafe behavior such as an attempt to drive through a fire front. The next important step in the development of theoretical knowledge was connected with the emergence and development of experimental natural science between the 16th and 18th centuries. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Lindell MK, Perry RW. However, as Beatson notes, both EPPM and TMHM could compromise preparedness actions and favour enhanced psychological resilience. Synergistic collaboration promoting shared responsibility, self-sufficiency and a deeper reciprocal understanding between emergency responders and animal owners can build trust, promote community engagement and strengthen a community’s capacity to respond and recover [12, 15]. Cite this article. In: Attorney-General’s Department, editor. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Generally, the intention of human beings to engage in any behavior is the most vital determinant of the behavior . These characteristics of a theory are responsible for its being an integral, unified system of knowledge. A scientific theory, however, is developed and used most effectively when the theory is closely connected with empirical research. Factors of influence on flood damage mitigation behaviour by households. 2007;16(3):370–9. 2011;42(1):19–40. Previous research suggests its relevance and flexibility favours an application where positive on-ground outcomes are sought and required. Wells DL. Ethical guidelines were followed throughout the study. 2015. Accessed 28 Mar 2016. BMC Public Health. Given this, some responder education may be necessary to illustrate the value of PMT. 2015;30(2):13–7. The rationale for the study is provided in the following sections. 2016;9(3):262–71. 2006;38:101–20. A background review of the animals in emergencies literature follows, preceding a description of PMT, and its advantages in this area. Whittaker J, Handmer J, Mercer D. Vulnerability to bushfires in Australia: A case study from East Gippsland, Victoria. (2) An initial theoretical basis, which is the set of fundamental assumptions, postulates, axioms, and general laws that, taken together, describe the idealized object of the theory. Attorney-General’s Department: Productivity Commission inquiry into natural disaster funding arrangements. Barker SB, Wolen AR. The role of theory increases particularly in the epoch of the creation of a socialist and communist society on the basis of the conscious activity of the masses. Promoting Community Resilience in Disasters: The Role for Schools, Youth, and Families. PubMed  Theories may be developed, and in fact often are developed, in relative independence from empirical research. Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Again, shared responsibility and cooperative collaboration among animal owners and responders could help reduce the stress of some inevitable and unavoidable temporary separation, while freeing up limited resources to assist those who need the most help. H.R. PMT has been successfully used in other-directed and natural hazard contexts in the past, and its adaptability has been established over four decades. Akama Y, Light A. In addition, the development of a theory involves the construction of new levels and strata of content of the theory on the basis of the concretization of the theoretical knowledge of the real object. 2011;46(3):171–82. Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. For example, the theories of N. Copernicus and I. Newton played an important role in the struggle with the religious world view, and Darwin’s theory of evolution contributed to the acceptance of the ideas of the dialectical materialistic world view. Similarly, special needs categories, such as elderly or disabled animal owners, or a single parent with a disabled child and an assistance dog, may not be as prepared and/or require additional help. It expands on Grothmann and Reusswig’s [34] PMT adaptation, adding the concepts of trust and uncertainty, complexity of the social microclimate and response choices (Fig. 2000;30(2):407–29. 2005;15:199–213. Community participation and organizational trust directly link to outcome expectancy, and these inter-relate as predictors of preparedness [12]. Reason J. Usually trusted sources, such as a family member or experienced neighbour, may be themselves too traumatised, or be insufficiently knowledgeable about the presenting conditions to offer the guidance needed. Marxism-Leninism rejects not only the depreciation of theory into an identification with practice but also scholastic theorization, which separates theory from reality. 2010;41(5):814–25. Self-responsibility and self-sufficiency – such as planning and finding safe places to relocate animals, which is the owner’s responsibility [46, 80, 81]. 2004;10(6):368–74. 1995;14:61–75. Developed in the 50s by the U.S. Public Health Service ; Social psychologists were asked to explain why people do not participate … The more open discussion of mental health issues in the public realm generally, and a better understanding of the anguish and stress sustained by bushfire survivors in particular, has prompted greater consideration for farmers who manage and treat their burned or injured animals, or shoot and perhaps mass-bury their livestock, often after investing decades of skill and experience in genetic selection [18, 41, 85]. 46, part 1, pp. Can PMT be applied to communities, groups, families or other collectives specifically including those with animals, exploring its application beyond the parent-child unit to variations of other-directed protective behaviour? PubMed  2). Community intervention has its own inherent challenges. In addition, the survey includes questions regarding cancer treatment and demographic characteristics, arm and chest symptoms, and arm function. J Exp Social Psychol. No pet left behind: accommodating pets in emergency planning. N2 - Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. J Arid Environ. The forms and depth of theoretical thought, however, may vary markedly. Chur-Hansen A. Grief and bereavement issues and the loss of a companion animal: People living with a companion animal, owners of livestock and animal support workers. As a specific form of scientific knowledge, a theory is more complicated and more highly developed than such other forms as a hypothesis or a law. Kitching R. IPCC: Australia and New Zealand face greater fire and flood risk, damage to coral reefs. Putney JM. Grothmann and Reusswig [34] expanded PMT in a quantitative study to describe the threat and coping appraisals in greater detail than Rogers’ original model, specifically pertaining to flood damage prevention. Eriksen C, Gill N. Bushfire and everyday life: examining the awareness-action gap in changing rural landscapes. Later the theory has been extended to a more general theory of persuasive communication, with an emphasis on the cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. ABC Landline: From The Ashes: Pinery Fires 2016. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Consequently, there is a need to investigate these different groups to fill current gaps in emergency communication and warnings, either within, or beyond, both groups [17, 18]. Glob Environ Chang. From the developmental psychology perspective, scholars have expressed reservations about applying protection motivation theory to children or young adolescents, who have not yet developed abstract reasoning and logic (Jordan and O'Grady 1982; Maddux et al. It is widely agreed that animals add enrichment and complexity to modern life [40–44]. Individuals – when managing only oneself in an emergency, current warnings, comprising comprehensive information from multiple sources should be sufficient for a physically and psychologically healthy adult to respond safely. Trust, alongside accurate and timely information, can overcome uncertainty and avert the danger of maladaptive response [7]. Descriptive theories are concerned primarily with the description and ordering of, usually, a vast amount of empirical material. Emergency services’ community education programs have made significant progress over the last decade, but public safety remains suboptimal while the magnitude of the awareness-preparedness gap persists. Br J Health Psychol. 2012;34(4):283–94. 2015;30(2):31–7. In: Caccioppo J, Petty R, editors. Kaufman KR, Kaufman ND. Thematic Analysis (TA) [25, 27] was chosen for data analysis because it is a flexible, versatile method which is independent of theory (7, 20). Complications can include simple logistics – the numbers of animals with respect to transport options and the time needed to evacuate or relocate animals to a place which may or may not have been pre-arranged. Chandler CK. 537–38). Overcoming maladaptive response to ultimately achieve safe behaviour means that adaptive response needs to become instinctual and reflex, and adopting that assertion routine. Volunteers who may be untrained or unstructured in the context of social microclimate will also need management, and therefore consume resources [17, 99]. From an operational perspective, an animal management presence on a Staging area, would allow responders to have a direct visual cue to enable rapid and accurate appraisal of the available animal emergency response services. J Bus Res. Gordon R. Acute responses to emergencies: findings and observations of 20 years in the field. 2). A protection motivation might be an intention to adopt or adhere to a fitness program. Consequences of actions such as these could initiate a cascade of negative or even catastrophic events, leading to an avoidable risk to the lives of emergency responders or others [100]. Anthrozoos. InPsych - Australian Psychological Society. Animal assisted therapy in counseling. Unfamiliarity with PMT is another limitation. Bockarjova M, Steg L. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? They may even be cautious or sceptical about the use of academic social theory in the practical context of firefighting. Perceptions of pet owners in urban Latin America on protection of their animals during disasters. In the 2014-15 Annual Report, 97% of the community responded that they understood the need for a plan, but only 41% (up from 25% the previous year) of respondents had actually taken the next step and created a plan suitable for their social microclimate [11]. This programming role of a theory with respect to practice is evidenced both in the sphere of material production and in social life. The Council of Australian Governments’ National Strategy for Disaster Resilience [15] has provided overarching guidelines for the direction of Australian emergency management, and has embraced all aspects of this discipline, including provision for animals [61]. 1975;91:93–114. Ethics approval for research that is being undertaken as part of this study has been granted by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Western Sydney University, approval number H11118. J Mental Health Couns. Where this includes the presence of animals, and recognising the need for bespoke mitigation options aligned with the social microclimate, broad sub-groups pertaining to animal ownership could include: individual + household members (e.g. Protection motivation theory was founded by R.W. Challenges of managing animals in disasters in the U.S. A robust self-efficacy is more likely to (i) lead to the taking of protective action in an appropriate timeframe, (ii) influence the degree of receptivity to information and (iii) promote the likelihood of taking effective remedial action [12, 32]. Smith B, Taylor MR, Thompson K. Risk perception, preparedness and response of livestock producers to bushfires: a South Australian case study. Australian Red Cross, Australian Psychological Society. This paper examines an expanded, other-directed application of PMT to expand and enhance safer mitigation and response behaviour strategies for communities threatened by bushfire, which may ultimately help save human life. The transition between the empirical stage of a science, which is limited to the classification and generalization of experimental data, and the theoretical stage, where true theories appear and develop, occurs through a series of intermediate forms of theori-zation. Psychological First Aid: An Australian guide to supporting people affected by disaster. The post-Katrina interest waned, but the grey literature remained engaged, as jurisdictions, particularly in Western society, began to understand more about the importance of including animals in emergency planning. The heterogeneity of any given community or demographic as observed by Martin et al [95] and Gordon [51, 55] means that the social microclimate of a population often defines the degree of complexity inherent in any given context or collective, including that of animal owners. J Integr Disaster Risk Manage. Theories can be classified into a variety of types corresponding to the variety of forms of idealization and, accordingly, the variety of types of idealized objects. The case of wildland fires. Fire can become an emergency when people, property, the environment and other assets are affected: the animal-owning public faces this challenge alongside the need to properly and safely manage their animals in addition to themselves. Attach Hum Dev. Human response to the death of a single animal, possibly the only one an individual has owned, may be very different to the devastation experienced by a farmer facing the loss of an entire herd or flock, but is no less valid [41]. Legend: Responders (red) have the widest range of powers and options available. So J. National Strategy for Disaster Resilience: Building Our Nations’s Resilience to Disasters. They are noted for the provision of unconditional love and non-judgemental behaviours. Permission to reproduce in an open access journal has been obtained from the copyright holder by the corresponding author. Owners of livestock, horses, companion pets, wildlife and animal related businesses are major categories. This allows for extraction of detailed, experiential material from the data to examine in the context of the application and proposed expansion of PMT. Rogers RW. 2009; (April 2009). wildlife or animals wandering at large, which have two main effects. The literature suggests that PMT is robust, versatile and is still in widespread use after four decades. The “Community” (yellow) has fewer but still quite extensive available options, and some of these will overlap with responder services such as Local Government, or Service clubs (e.g. Expansion of Protection Motivation Theory. Martin IM, Bender H, Raish C. What motivates individuals to protect themselves from risks? Natural hazards of varying degrees of severity frequently appear in news bulletins, usually, and understandably, reporting primarily on the human tragedy. Consequently, a theory must be distinguished from other forms of scientific knowledge—for example, from scientific laws, classifications, typologies, and preliminary explanatory schemes. In the last two decades, PMT has expanded beyond the realm of self-protection into vicarious other-directed health sector contexts such as the parent-child unit. Even so, a willingness to engage with PMT training, as a new and unfamiliar approach, could itself be a challenge. Title: Health Belief Model / Protection Motivation Theory 1 Health Belief Model / Protection Motivation Theory. Taylor MR, Lynch E, Burns P, Eustace G. The preparedness and evacuation behaviour of pet owners in emergencies and natural disasters. Drabek TE. Rogers J, Scholz T, Gillen A. McNeill IM, Dunlop PD, Skinner TC, Morrison DL. Devastating large scale events which attract the world’s attention, such as Hurricane Katrina, have been well documented with respect to the destruction and chaos they bring to people, communities and ecosystems. Risk Anal. Included in their adaptation of PMT was recognition of previous experience (of flood), the reliability of known public protective infrastructure, the costs of private measures and maladaptive responses such as wishful thinking. Consequently, a theory opens up new prospects before practice and broadens its horizons. Westcott, R., Ronan, K., Bambrick, H. et al. 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